Teaching and Learning guidance

Children and young people with vision impairment deserve high quality teaching to become independent learners and to reach their full potential.

This series of guides takes you through the key issues, strategies and resources you need to know about to help you in your work. 

The early years

The early years are crucial for every child's development and learning. Here you can find ideas, resources and information to help young blind and partially sighted children to make the best start in life. 

For advice on very young children please look at the resources on our Family, friends and carers pages.

The Developmental Journal for babies and children with vision impairment

The Developmental Journal for babies and young children with vision impairment (DJVI) is an early childhood intervention programme for babies and young children with severe vision impairment. It was developed by clinicians and clinical researchers from the Developmental Vision Programme at Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Foundation Trust and UCL Great Ormond Street Institute for Child Health (main authors Dr Alison Salt and Dr Naomi Dale). In 2005 it was commissioned by the English central government to be disseminated as the national early intervention framework for children with vision impairment and their families.

The DJVI is a systematic framework tracking developmental and vision progress from birth to three years of age (or equivalent developmental age). It aims to:

  • help parents and practitioners track and understand the child’s achievements, progress and development;
  • support goal setting and guidance to promote vision and general development;
  • support interdisciplinary and interagency working;
  • support information sharing between parents and the practitioners they meet;
  • identify areas of difficulty early where more help would be useful.

Who is this for?

The DJVI is designed to be used, in partnership with parents, by qualified clinicians and specialist professionals working in services providing support to babies and young children with vision impairment and their parents.

Recent research (Optimum VI) commissioned by RNIB, Fight for Sight and Great Ormond Street’s Children’s Charity published in 2018 has demonstrated that children being supported using the DJVI secure better outcomes on a range of cognitive, social and behavioural measures than children receiving other forms of support.

Our policy statement on early years has been updated to reflect these findings and to promote use of the DJVI as best practice.

Free online training entitled Developmental Journal Visual Impairment Part 1 and 2  is available through the Health Education England/ Royal College of Paediatric Child Health Healthy Child Programme - Early Developmental Support training course.

The DJVI is available on professional licence from UCL


Learning through play in the early years

This guide is about supporting play for young children with a vision impairment. It covers early play, exploration and developing play. It also recommends ways of creating play environments as well as choosing toys and making treasure baskets and sensory development boxes.

Focus on foundation: including children who are blind or partially sighted in early years settings (Third edition)

Focus on foundation offers practical ideas for including children with vision impairment in early years settings, including reception classes.

Social inclusion in the early years

This guide is based around a case study of a young blind child and provides useful tips on social inclusion in a nursery setting.

Access to education

This guide focuses on access to mainstream education for learners with vision impairment.. It looks at ways in which professionals can help reduce barriers to learning by focusing on inpidual needs, providing accessible resources, enhancing communication skills, and making adjustments to the physical and sensory environment. It also considers the implications of vision impairment for social development and suggests key strategies for addressing these.

Teaching National Curriculum subjects

Here you can find information and resources on teaching specific National Curriculum subjects to blind and partially sighted children.

Mobility and independence at school

In this guide we focus on how to encourage children and young people to become independent in their learning and play .

Further and higher education

Here we offer guidance for professionals on accessible admissions, funding, and the legal responsibilities of institutions to meet the support needs of young people in further and higher education.

Transition on to further and higher education can seem daunting for young people. This is why RNIB have developed Transition guidance specifically for young people who are blind or partially sighted to help support them through this process. "Your future, your choice: Bridging the gap" outlines the support and services available to assist young people through their journey from school, through further and higher education, and into employment.

Emotional support

Information about our Emotional Support Service, and details of useful resources and information for teachers, teaching assistants and other professionals working in education in relation to supporting the social and emotional needs of young people.