Children and young people can be affected by a number of eye conditions. The same diagnosis can affect vision in different people in different ways.
If possible, it is important to know how much your child can see and how they use their sight. This knowledge can help to make sure that your child has the best opportunity to make use of any residual vision and to provide the best support.
Your child's eye condition could have a number of causes and also it is possible to be affected by more than one eye condition, for example glaucoma and cataract. Many eye conditions are caused by something specific to the eye. However, sometimes the brain doesn't translate images properly. In some children, there is a problem with the pathway to the eye and the brain. In that case, getting glasses or contact lenses can still help your child to get the best image they can.
Your child's ophthalmologist (hospital consultant specialising in eye conditions) will work to find out how much your child can see. Don't forget to ask questions or jot down notes during the consultation if you need to. When you get a diagnosis, see our eye health section for more information about common eye conditions. For rarer diseases, see our page on rare eye conditions. There is also extensive information about eye conditions which affect children available from NHS Scotland’s Visual Impairment Network for Children and Young People (VINCYP). It's possible to do eye tests even with very young children, where all the child has to do is look at a picture. It's a good idea to ask around to find a child-friendly optometrist in your area.
If your child has some vision, teachers need to know how much your child can see (this is call functional vision). They need to present information in the best way for your child to make use of any remaining vision.
You can play an important part in this process. Share what you know about how your child responds to visual stimuli (for instance lights and different colours). You could also mention if they seem to view things more easily on one side or the other.
If your child has a vision impairment, it is essential that a Qualified Teacher of Vision Impairment (QTVI) is involved in supporting their growth and development and planning access to education. A QTVI is based within a local authority sensory support team and will provide support on a visiting (peripatetic) basis, firstly at home, then into nursery and school. Your child should be referred to a local QTVI from the hospital eye clinic when they are diagnosed and can provide support from birth. The QTVI may do tests to check how your child uses their sight in everyday situations. These functional vision assessments will be done on an ongoing basis. See our information on education and learning which gives you lots of information about school life and support for your child.
If your child has just been diagnosed, you may be wondering what to do next. See our information for parents.
Here are some of the terms that ophthalmologists or teachers may use to describe what's causing your child’s vision impairment:
Functional vision – how your child uses their sight in everyday situations.
Ocular vision impairment – Meaning one or more parts of the eyes are not functioning properly.
Cortical or cerebral vision impairment (CVI) – this is when there may not be a difficulty with the eyes, but the brain doesn't process the images properly. This is common for children who have multiple disabilities or complex needs. For further links to information on CVI check out CVI Scotland's website.
Combinations – some children may have both; a combination of CVI and ocular visual impairment.
If your child only has CVI, then glasses or contact lenses may not be helpful. Get the professional's advice on other ways to help your child make the most of whatever sight they have.
Visual acuity – This is a measure of how sharp/clear your child’s vision is. They may check this by using a Snellen or LogMAR chart which has the letters decreasing in size as you go down the chart or they may use Kays pictures if your child is younger or has additional needs. You may notice their vision is recorded as something like 6/24 or 0.6. This example would mean that during the test your child could see at 6 metres what someone with full sight could see at 24 metres.
Visual Field – This is the total area of what your child can see from looking at a fixed point without moving their head. You may be told your child has better vision on a certain side/area of their visual field. This is helpful to know.
Our team of regionally based Children, Young People and Family Support Officers are here to help. If you can’t find what you’re looking for, or you’d like to talk further about any of the above, then please get in touch with us by emailing [email protected] or calling us on 0303 123 9999.